Dogs

Introduction

Using these notes

These notes:

    • have been written to be consistent with community, industry and research and teaching based animal welfare legislation
    • apply to all schools in NSW, government and non-government
    • contain standards (in a red box at the beginning of each section) and guidelines. The standards must be met by schools, in accordance with the requirements of the Animal Research Authority. The guidelines are the desirable practices to achieve desirable animal welfare outcomes
    • reflect available scientific knowledge, current practice and community expectations.

Each section of these notes lists any approved activities, with their approved categories, that are applicable to dogs. A complete list of the approved activities for all species can be found in Approved activities.

 

In general the use of dogs for educational purposes in schools is limited to the following:

    • Working dogs on the school farm
    • Visits by organised groups or programs, e.g. Responsible Pet Ownership
    • Visits by community owned dogs, e.g. for news items
    • Assistance dogs or Service dogs.

Dogs are not generally considered suitable animals for being housed at a school.

 

Varietal range differences

There is an enormous range of dogs kept in Australia. They are grouped according to original breed, use or type:

    • Toys, including Maltese and Chihuahua
    • Terriers, including Australian Terriers and Airedales
    • Gundogs, including Spaniels and Pointers
    • Hounds, including Beagles and Whippets
    • Working, including German Shepherds and Kelpies
    • Non-Sporting, including Dobermans and Samoyeds
    • Utility, including Boxers and Schnauzers.

 

Vision

The vision of the dog is different to that of humans. They can see colour, in particular those within the blue and yellow portion of the light spectrum but are incapable of distinguishing reds and oranges. They see static shapes in less detail than humans but are very sensitive to moving objects and can see a waving hand up to a kilometre away. Dogs are very sensitive to sudden or unusual movement, an asset made use of in guide dogs, retrievers and hunting dogs.

In general dogs have panoramic field of vision is 250-270° but binocular vision varies greatly in different breeds according to how far their eyes are set in the front of their head. It has been shown that their peripheral vision is affected by the shape of their skull. Dogs have much better night vision than humans.

 

Smell

Smell is the dog’s predominant sense, having 44 times more scent receptors than humans. This facilitates the ability for dogs to be trained for a variety of tasks, selecting objects or finding humans.

 

Hearing

Dogs have highly developed hearing and can hear high notes that the human ear cannot detect. They hear notes of much higher frequency than humans, giving them the ability to detect the calls of many small mammals, such as mice and bats, and allowing them to be successful hunters.

 

Behavioural characteristics

Dogs are highly social animals that have evolved to live in groups known as packs with a social hierarchy. In human-dog relationships it is appropriate for the human to be the leader of the dog’s pack.

Most breeds of dog thrive on an appropriate human-dog relationship although some breeds such as the Maremma readily bond with stock and remain aloof and independent of humans.

Because of the companionship role that exists with dogs, it is generally not suitable for a dog to live at the school. An exception to this is when a breed such the Maremma is used on the school farm to guard the stock. In this case the dog develops a relationship and bond with the stock and lives with them. Students must understand this relationship and learn how to interact appropriately with the dog and the stock.

 

Temperament

Particular attention must be given to the suitability of a dog’s temperament when selecting an individual dog to participate in any activity in a school. Dogs that have difficult temperaments and are fearful, timid or dominant, should not be used in the school situation.

 

Ownership

Any dog that is used by a school must be the responsibility and be in the care of a person. This person is generally a staff member, but in the case of dogs that visit a school, may be owned by a community member.

 

Identification

All dogs must be microchipped and registered with the local council in which they are kept.